Table 8 Regulatory role of AP-2α in various types of cancer along with involved molecular pathways (based on [15,16,89–104])
ProteinType of cancerRegulationFunctionPathways (if available)References
AP-2αHepatocellular carcinomaSuppressorTFAP2A overexpression decreases cell migration and invasion, and also leads to inhibition of cell growth and proliferationHIF-1α-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway;[15,89–92]
β-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling;
Bax/cytochrome c/Apaf1/caspase9-dependent mitochondrial pathway;
CdK-inhibitor p21WAF in p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways
AP-2αBreast cancerSuppressorReduced TFAP2A is associated with more aggressive breast cancer[93,94]
TFAP2A high expression is related to sensitiveness to chemotherapeutic drugs (due to massive induction of apoptosis)
AP-2αGlioblastomaSuppressorTFAP2A reduces tumor cell growth, increases cell death, attenuates cell migration, and endothelial tube formation[95]
AP-2αMelanomaSuppressorComparison of stage 4 melanomas compared with non-stage 4 display, that silenced TFAP2A by aberrant CpG methylation of its promoter is most decreased in higher stages[96]
AP-2αGastric cancerSuppressorTFAP2A can reverse the multidrug resistance (MDR)Notch signaling pathway[97,98]
Lower level of TFAP2A leads to unfavorable prognosis for patients
AP-2αProstate cancerSuppressorLoss of TFAP2A leads to decreased cellular zinc uptake which is essential for tumor development[99]
AP-2αColorectal cancerSuppressorTFAP2A negatively regulates downstream targets of β-catenin/TCF/LEFWnt signaling pathway[90]
AP-2αNeuroblastomaOncogeneTFAP2A is overexpressed in cell lines derived from high-stage tumors[100]
AP-2αPancreatic cancerOncogeneCell lines express high nuclear levels of TFAP2A[101]
AP-2α variant 6 seems to be specific for pancreatic cancer
AP-2αAcute myeloid leukemiaOncogeneTFAP2A affects Hoxa7, Hoxa9, and Meis1 which are involved in leukemogenesis[102]
AP-2αSquamous cell carcinomasOncogeneAP-2α is involved in complex keratinocyte biology including proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis[103,104]
AP-2αNasopharyngeal carcinomaOncogeneTFAP2A overexpression correlates with HIF-1α expression along with advanced tumor stage, local invasion, clinical progression, or poor prognosisHIF-1α-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway[16]