Table 1 Baseline characteristics of studies included in meta-analysis
Author/yearRegionStudy designPatients (% men)Age/range Mean (S.D.)CRP cut-off value (mg/l)Sampling timeDeath numbersHR/OR (95% CI)Follow-upAdjustment for covariatesOverall NOS
Muir et al. 1999 [19]ScotlandProspective studyAIS 228 (54.4)67.0 ± 13.1Log- transformed per unit increaseWithin 72 hours of admission811.23 (1.13–1.35)2.63 yearsAge, NIHSS, TC, histories of previous MI, stroke, and cigarette smoking7
Elkind et al. 2006 [20]U.S.A.Prospective studyAIS 467 (45.4)68.9 ± 12.7Tertile 3 vs. 1; ≥31.2 vs. <4.2 (Hs-CRP)Hospitalization or clinic visit1592.11 (1.18–3.75)4.0 yearsAge, sex. race/ethnicity, CAD, DM, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, AF, current smoking, stroke severity and Lp-PLA27
Shantikumar et al. 2009 [21]U.K.Retrospective studyAIS 394 (50.8)58–81Quintile 4 vs. 1; >22.3 vs.<2.48Within 10 days of symptom onset2312.0 (1.3–3.1)7.4 yearsAge, AF, previous stroke/TIA, stroke subtype6
den Hertog et al. 2009 [22]The NetherlandsRetrospective studyAIS 561 (60.0)69.7 ± 13.5≥7.0 vs. <7.0 and log-transformed per unit increaseWithin 12 h of symptom onset1101.7 (1.0–2.9), 1.9 (1.2–2.8)3 monthsAge, sex, NIHSS, cigarette smoking, DM, hypertension, statin use, and stroke subtype7
Idicula et al. 2009 [23]NorwayProspective studyAIS 498 (60.6)69.3 ± 14.0Tertile 3 vs. 1; ≥10.0 vs. <3.0Within 24 h673.47 (1.58–7.64)2.5 yearsAge, sex, NIHSS, pre-existing DM and intravenous thrombolysis in categories8
Huang et al 2012 [24]ChinaProspective studyAIS 741 (74.9)60.9 ± 13.3>3.0 vs. ≤3.0 (Hs-CRP)Within 15 days of symptom onset326.48 (1.41–29.8)3 monthsAge, sex, NIHSS, hypertension, CAD, and fasting glucose at admission6
Karlinski et al. 2014 [15]PolandRetrospective studyAIS 341 (32.9)55–74>5.0 vs. ≤5.0Within 24 h after admission531.32 (0.51–3.37)3 monthsAge, baseline NIHSS, DM, CHF, lack of prestroke disability, recent infection and prestroke statins use7
Li et al. 2015 [25]ChinaProspective cohort studyAIS 374 (55.1)69 (63–79)Log-transformed per unit increase (Hs-CRP)Within 12 h of symptom onset6415.37 (3.25–41.08)1 yearAge, sex, smoking, glucose, NIHSS, homocysteine, procalcitonin, infarct volume, and rt-PA-treated7
  • Abbreviations: AF, atrial fibrillation; AIS, acute ischemic stroke; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HR, hazard ratio; Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity CRP; Lp-PLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; MI, myocardial infarction; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score; OR, odds ratio; rt-PA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.