Table 2 Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters after gender stratification
Clinical and biochemical parametersMalesP-valueFemalesP-value
Met S (178)Healthy group (165)Met S (46)Healthy group (35)
Age in years47.12 ± 8.2346.27 ± 8.410.41647.17 ± 7.0845.11 ± 7.180.680
Systolic BP in mm of mercury123.66 ± 15.14114.38 ± 12.510.000131.14 ± 15.58125.86 ± 30.91<0.0001
Diastolic BP in mm of mercury80.07 ± 10.4977.07 ± 7.620.00082.61 ± 10.3080.55 ± 9.16<0.0001
Waist circumference in centimeters101.65 ± 8.2979.15 ± 8.540.000100.46 ± 11.3578.62 ± 2.13<0.0001
Body mass index28.46 ± 4.3223.23 ± 3.610.00030.91 ± 5.7324.99 ± 3.890.001
HDL (mg/dl)39.42 ± 8.3839.12 ± 3.390.71041.50 ± 12.341.60 ± 10.40.985
Triglycerides (mg/dl)181 (132–262)145 (119–164)0.000*215 (167–354)150 (116–162)<0.0001*
Cholesterol (mg/dl)196 (175–240)184 (164–200)0.000*214.5 (179–245)177.5 (158–191)0.003*
Serum uric acid in mg/dl6.76 ± 1.535.30 ± 1.050.0006.13 ± 1.385.42 ± 1.060.172
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)7.7 (4–10.7)5.0 (4.4–5.3)0.000*9.74 ± 3.384.90 ± 1.35<0.0001*
Fasting insulin (µg/ml)29.81 (14.7–50.2)8.85 (6.12–12.74)0.000*26.329 (18.4–46.3)12.71 (10.60–16.70)0.011*
HOMA-IR10 (5.7–18.5)1.88 (1.33–2.91)0.000*11 (7.8–17.5)3.5 (2.12–4.80)0.001*
TNF-α (pico g/ml)20 (10–61)9 (6–15)0.000*24 (9.7–64)18 (10.5–74.5)0.981
IL-6 (pico g/ml)17 (6–47)6 (4.3–16)0.003*12 (8–19.5)14 (7–44)0.425
  • Values given are Mean ± SD or Median (IQR) as related to the results obtained through the Shapiro–Wilk’s statistics. “P” value is generated by Student’s t- testand Mann–Whitney U- test*. A P <0.05 is statistically significant.

  • HOMA-IR = Fasting serum glucose × Fasting serum insulin / 22.5

    Abbreviations: HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α.

    n = number (male/female)