Table 3 Meta-analysis of tooth loss and risk of all-causes mortality
All-causes mortality [RR (95%CI)]
10 teeth lost20 teeth lost32 teeth lost
Total1.15 (1.11–1.19)1.33 (1.24–1.42)1.57 (1.41–1.75)
Sex
Male1.10 (1.04–1.16)1.38 (1.27–1.51)1.35 (1.14–1.60)
Female1.12 (1.02–1.24)1.27 (1.03–1.56)1.48 (1.07–2.03)
Male + female1.17 (1.12–1.23)1.38 (1.27–1.51)1.68 (1.46–1.93)
Duration of follow-up
<10 years follow-up1.11 (1.08–1.14)1.23 (1.16–1.30)1.39 (1.28–1.52)
≥10 years follow-up1.26 (1.18–1.35)1.59 (1.39–1.82)2.11 (1.70–2.62)
Geographic location
Europe1.20 (1.12–1.28)1.43 (1.25–1.64)1.78 (1.43–2.21)
America1.10 (1.03–1.17)1.21 (1.06–1.39)1.37 (1.10–1.70)
Asia1.09 (1.07–1.12)1.20 (1.14–1.27)1.34 (1.24–1.45)
Australia1.17 (1.13–1.22)1.38 (1.28–1.48)1.67 (1.49–1.87)
Number of cases
Cases < 5001.15 (1.07–1.24)1.33 (1.14–1.55)1.58 (1.24–2.02)
Cases 500–<10001.22 (1.09–1.35)1.48 (1.20–1.84)1.89 (1.35–2.65)
Cases ≥10001.12 (1.08–1.16)1.26 (1.17–1.36)1.44 (1.29–1.62)
NOS quality
High (6–7 stars)1.15 (1.11–1.19)1.33 (1.24–1.42)1.57 (1.41–1.75)
Low (0–6 stars)
Assessment of tooth loss
Self-reported number of teeth1.11 (1.07–1.15)1.23 (1.13–1.34)1.40 (1.23–1.59)
Clinical measured number of teeth1.19 (1.12–1.26)1.42 (1.26–1.60)1.75 (1.45–2.12)
Adjustment for confounders
AgeYes1.15 (1.11–1.20)1.33 (1.23–1.44)1.59 (1.41–1.79)
No1.14 (1.07–1.20)1.29 (1.15–1.45)1.52 (1.26–1.83)
GenderYes1.17 (1.11–1.23)1.37 (1.23–1.53)1.66 (1.40–1.97)
No1.13 (1.08–1.18)1.28 (1.17–1.40)1.49 (1.30–1.72)
SmokingYes1.14 (1.10–1.18)1.30 (1.20–1.40)1.52 (1.35–1.72)
No1.19 (1.11–1.28)1.42 (1.23–1.65)1.77 (1.41–2.22)
AlcoholYes1.09 (1.06–1.12)1.20 (1.13–1.26)1.34 (1.23–1.45)
No1.22 (1.15–1.30)1.50 (1.32–1.70)1.92 (1.57–2.35)
Physical activityYes1.12 (1.07–1.18)1.27 (1.14–1.41)1.46 (1.25–1.72)
No1.17 (1.11–1.23)1.37 (1.24–1.52)1.66 (1.42–1.95)
DiabetesYes1.11 (1.07–1.16)1.25 (1.15–1.35)1.43 (1.26–1.61)
No1.18 (1.13–1.23)1.41 (1.26–1.57)1.73 (1.45–2.06)
HypertensionYes1.09 (1.05–1.12)1.19 (1.11–1.28)1.33 (1.19–1.48)
No1.18 (1.12–1.24)1.39 (1.27–1.52)1.70 (1.48–1.95)
BMIYes1.12 (1.07–1.16)1.25 (1.15–1.35)1.43 (1.26–1.61)
No1.20 (1.12–1.29)1.43 (1.22–1.67)1.80 (1.44–2.24)
Socio-economics statusYes1.19 (1.10–1.29)1.30 (1.21–1.40)1.78 (1.39–2.27)
No1.14 (1.10–1.18)1.43 (1.22–1.67)1.53 (1.35–1.72)
Marital statusyes1.09 (1.06–1.12)1.19 (1.12–1.27)1.33 (1.21–1.46)
no1.16 (1.12–1.21)1.36 (1.25–1.47)1.63 (1.42–1.85)