Table 1 Summary of chemical compound-based direct reprogramming into neurones
Target cell typeSource cellsGenerationChemical cocktail and cytokinesInduction/maturation mediumReferences
Neurone (glutamatergic neurones and GABAergic neurones)Human dermal fibroblastsNeonatal and adultCHIR99021, PD0325901, LDN193189, SB431542, Pifithrin-α, and ForskolinThe N2B27 medium with the chemical cocktail for several weeks[21]
Neurone (glutamatergic neurones and GABAergic neurones)MEFsFetalForskolin, ISX9, CHIR99021, and I-BET151The neuronal induction medium with the chemical cocktail and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for 20 days. The maturation medium in co-culture of primary astrocytes or the neuronal induction medium containing Forskolin, bFGF, BDNF, GFNF for another 15 days[24]
Neurone (glutamatergic neurones and GABAergic neurones)Human foreskin fibroblasts, human dermal fibroblastsAdultVCRFSGY: VPA, CHIR99021, RepSox, Forskolin, SP600125, GO6983, and Y-27632The induction medium with the chemical cocktail for 8 days. The maturation medium with CHIR99021, Forskolin, and Dorsomorphin, and extra neurotrophic factors, BDNF, GDNF, and NT3 for another 6 days[25]
Neurones (glutamatergic neurones)Human primary astrocytesFetalLDN193189, SB431542, TTNPB, Thiazovivin, CHIR99021, VPA, DAPT, SAG, and PurmophamineThe N2 medium with the nine chemical compounds was sequentially treated in a stepwise manner for 8 days. The neuronal differentiation medium containing three neurotrophic factors, BDNF, NT3, and IGF-1 from day 9 to 30 for the maturation[30]
Neurones (glutamatergic neurones)Human primary astrocytesAdultVPA, CHIR99021, RepSox, Forskolin, I-BET151, and ISX-9The induction medium with the chemical cocktail for 20 days. The neurone maturation medium with Forskolin and I-BET151 for further culture[32]
AstrocytesMEFs, human foreskin fibroblastsFetalVAP, CHIR99021, SB431542, Tranylcypromine, and OAC1The induced astrocyte medium with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and the chemical cocktail for 25 days (mouse) or 40 days (human)[33]