Table 5 Summary of chemical compound-based direct reprogramming into endoderm progenitor cells and somatic stem cells
Target cell typeSource cellsGenerationChemical cocktail cytokinesInduction/maturation mediumReferences
Endoderm progenitor cellshGECsAdult (35–78 years old)Bix01294, RG108, Bay k 8644, and SB431542The DMEM-F12 based medium with the chemical cocktail using human GSEMFs (hGSEMFs) as feeder cells for 7–15 days. The DMEM-F12 based medium with A83-01, Wnt3a, and bFGF for further culture and passage[86]
Endoderm progenitor cellsMEFsFetalRepSox, Forskolin, Y-27632, CHIR99021, TTNPB, bFGF, BMP4, and Activin AThe N2B27 medium with the chemical cocktail including TTNPB for 4 days (Stage 1). The N2B27 medium with the chemical cocktail including high concentration of CHIR99021 and Activin A instead of TTNPB for another 10 days (Stage 2). The modified medium mixed with the commercial HCM medium for further culture (Stage 3).[87]
Chemically induced liver progenitors (CLiPs)Rodent primary hepatocytesAdultY-27632, A83-01, and CHIR99021Rodent primary hepatocytes under the culture treated with the three chemicals become proliferative without obvious phenotypic alterations.[88]
MSCHuman dermal fibroblastsFetal adultSP600125, SB202190, GO6983, Y-27632, PD0325901, and CHIR99021The chemical cocktail medium with the six chemicals and TGF-β1, bFGF, and LIF for 6 days. After FACS sorting, the MSC expansion medium for further culture and expansion[91]