Table 1 Some examples of symmetry-mismatched structures published in the past 3 years.
ComplexBasis structureBinding siteSubstructureSym. mism.NMethodaSign. sub.?Ref.
Adenovirus D26 vertexCapsid (I)Vertex (C5)Fiber (C3)I-C5–fC312LocalRecNo[19]
Bacteriophage phi6 vertexCapsid (I)Vertex (C5)Hexamer (C6)I-C5–C612LocalRecYes[12]
Cypovirus genomeCapsid (I)N/AGenome (pD3)I–pD31SymRelaxYes[6]
Cypovirus genomeCapsid (I)N/AGenome (pD3)I–pD31SARYes[10]
GroELGroEL (D7)N/AN/AqD714LocalRecYes[2]
ApoptosomeCentral hub (C7)Hub subunit (C1)Sickle-like density (C1)C7-C1–vC17SymExpand/FocusedClassYes[33]
COPIICOPII cage (O)N/AN/AqO12LocalRecNo[4]
Bacteriophage phi6 polymeraseCapsid (I)Face (C3)Polymerase (C1)I-C3–vC120LocalRecYes[4]
HIV-1–intasomeIN dimer (C2)Core (C1)Flanking subunit (C1)C2-C1–fC12SymExpand/FocusedClassNo[34]
FMDV–receptor complexCapsid (I)RGD loop (C1)Integrin receptorI-C1–vfC160LocalRecYes[5]
MS2 genomeCapsid (I)N/AGenomeI–C11SARNo[15]
Qβ genomeCapsid (I)N/AGenomeI–C11SARNo[14]
Rift Valley fever virusCapsid (I)N/AN/AqI12 or 60LocalRecNo[35]
  • a The following abbreviations for the methods are used: LocalRec (sub-particle based localized reconstruction methods), SymRelax (symmetry relaxation methods), SAR (standard asymmetric reconstruction), and SymExpand/FocusedClass (symmetry expansion combined with focused classification).